RHINE (Joseph Banks Rhine) is widely considered to be the "Father of Modern Parapsychology." Along with his wife Dr
Louisa E. Rhine, Dr J. B. Rhine studied the phenomena now known as parapsychology at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina. J. B. Rhine collaborated with Professor
William McDougall who served as the Chairman of the Department of Psychology. Dr. J. B. Rhine coined the term "extrasensory perception" (ESP) to describe the apparent ability of some people to acquire information without the use of the known (five)
senses. He also adopted the term "parapsychology" to distinguish his interests from mainstream psychology.
The Duke experiments on telepathy, clairvoyance and precognition used specially designed cards called Zener cards. About the size of regular playing cards, these cards were composed of decks of 25 cards, with each card having one of five symbols on one size: a cross, star, wavy lines, circle and square. Under various experimental conditions, subjects would attempt to guess these cards. Out of each deck of 25 cards, 5 correct guesses were expected by chance. Using exact binomial probability calculations, it is possible to determine how "improbable" it would be to guess an excess number of cards correctly. In one set of experiments, 2400 total guesses were made and an excess of 489 hits (correct guesses) were noted. The statistical probability of this outcome is equivalent to odds of 1,000,000 to 1 (against chance) and thus show significant evidence that "something occurred."
Sceptics will argue that factors other than ESP account for the deviations (some claim cheating by the subjects, sloppiness by the experimenters, etc.)
J. B. Rhine's work was summarised in a now-famous book Extra-Sensory Perception
After Sixty Years (Rhine, J. B., Pratt, J. G.; Smith, Burke M; Stuart, Charles E; and Greenwood, Joseph A.
Extra-Sensory Perception After Sixty Years, Holt: New York, 1940; Humphries: Boston, 1966)
What conclusions can we draw about Rhine's overall research program? By 1940, 33 experiments had accumulated, involving almost a million trials, with protocols which rigorously excluded possible sensory clues (e.g., by introducing distance and/or barriers between sender and receiver, or by employing precognition protocols (i.e., where the target has not yet been selected at the time subjects make their responses).
Twenty seven (27) of the 33 studies produced statistically significant results
- an exceptional record, even today. Furthermore, positive results were not restricted to Rhine's lab. In the five years following Rhine's first publication of his results, 33 independent replication experiments were conducted at different laboratories. Twenty (20) of these (or 61%) were statistically significant (where 5% would be expected by chance alone).
A meta-analysis was done specifically for precognition experiments conducted between the years 1935 - 1987. (Honorton, C., & Ferrari, D. .
'Meta-analysis of forced-choice precognition experiments' 1935 - 1987. Journal of
Parapsychology, vol 53, 281 - 308). This included 309 studies, conducted by 62 experimenters. The cumulative probability associated with the overall results was p =
10-24 (that is equivalent to .000000000000000000000001 where .05 is considered statistically significant). The scientific evidence for precognition, the most provocative of all parapsychological phenomena, stands of firm statistical grounds.
The Rhine Research Center in Durham still continues to be a thriving center for parapsychological research.
Selected Publications of J. B. & Louisa Rhine:
J. B. (1934). Extra-sensory perception. Boston: Boston Society for Psychic Research.
Rhine, J. B. (1937). New Frontiers of the Mind. New York: Farrar & Rinehart.
Rhine, J. B. (1941). 'Terminal salience in ESP performance'. Journal of
Parapsychology, 5, 183-244.
Rhine, J. B. (1946a). 'Hypnotic suggestion in PK tests'. Journal of
Parapsychology, 10, 126-40.
Rhine, J. B. (1946b). 'The psychokinetic effect: a review'. Journal of
Parapsychology, 10, 5-20.
Rhine, J. B. (1947a). 'Pierre Janetís contribution to parapsychology'.
Rhine, J. B. and Pratt, J. G. (1957). Parapsychology: Frontier Science of the
Mind. Springfield, Illinois: Charles Thomas.
Rhine, J. B. and Pratt, J. G. (1961). 'A reply to the Hansel critique of the Pearce-Pratt
series'. Journal of Parapsychology, 25, 92-8.
Rhine, J. B., Pratt, J. G., Stuart, C. E., Smith, B. M. and Greenwood, J. A. (1966).
Extra-sensory Perception after Sixty Years. Boston: Bruce Humphries. (Original work published 1940.)
Rhine, J. B., Smith, B. M. and Woodruff, J. L. (1938). 'Experiments bearing on the precognition hypothesis: II. The role of ESP in the shuffling of
cards'. Journal of Parapsychology, 2, 119-31.
Rhine, L. E. (1951). 'Conviction and associated conditions in spontaneous
cases'. Journal of Parapsychology, 15, 164-91.
Rhine, L. E. (1957). Hallucinatory psi experiences: III. The intention of the agent and the dramatizing tendency of the percipient. Journal of Parapsychology, 21,
Rhine, L. E. (1962). 'Psychological processes in ESP experiences. Part I. Waking
experiences'. Journal of Parapsychology, 26, 88-111.
Rhine, L. E. (1965). Hidden Channels of the Mind. New York: William Morrow.
Rhine, L. E. (1967). ESP in Life and Lab. New York: Macmillan. (Paper, New York: Collier, 1969.)
Rhine, L. E. (1969). 'Case study review'. Journal of Parapsychology, 33,
Rhine, L. E. (1970). Mind over Matter. New York: Macmillan.
Rhine, L. E. (1981). The Invisible Picture. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland.
Rhine, L. E. and Rhine, J. B. (1943). 'The psychokinetic effect: I. The first
experiment'. Journal of Parapsychology, 7, 20-43. Journal of
Parapsychology, 11, 155-9.
Rhine, J. B. (1947b). The Reach of the Mind. New York: Sloane.
Rhine, J. B. (1948). 'The value of reports of spontaneous psi
experiences'. Journal of Parapsychology, 12, 231-5.
Rhine, J. B. (1954). 'The science of nonphysical nature'. The Journal of
Philosophy, 51, 801-10.
Rhine, J. B. (1969). 'Position effects in psi test results'. Journal of
Parapsychology, 33, 136-57.
Rhine, J. B. (1972). 'Parapsychology and man'. Journal of
Parapsychology, 36, 101-21.
Rhine, J. B. (1973). Extrasensory Perception (rev. edn). Boston: Bruce Humphries. (Original work published 1934.)
Rhine, J. B. (1974). 'Comments: a new case of experimenter unreliability'.
Journal of Parapsychology, 38, 215-25.
Rhine, J. B. (1977). History of experimental studies. HB (pp. 25-47).
Rhine, J. B. and associates (1965). Parapsychology from Duke to FRNM. Durham, North Carolina: Parapsychology Press.
Rhine, J. B. and Feather, S. R. (1962). 'The study of cases of psi-trailing in
animals'. Journal of Parapsychology, 26, 1-22.
Rhine, J. B. and Humphrey, B. M. (1944a). 'The PK effect: special evidence from hit patterns. I. Quarter distributions of the
page'. Journal of Parapsychology, 8, 18-60.
Rhine, J. B. and Humphrey, B. M. (1944b). 'The PK effect: special evidence from hit patterns. II. Quarter distributions of the
set'. Journal of Parapsychology, 8, 254-71.
Rhine, J. B., Humphrey, B. M. and Pratt, J. G. (1945). 'The PK effect: special evidence from hit patterns. III. Quarter distributions of the
half-set'. Journal of Parapsychology, 9, 150-68.
Rhine, J. B. and Pratt, J. G. (1954). 'A review of the Pearce-Pratt distance series of ESP
tests'. Journal of Parapsychology, 18, 165-77.
Source (with minor
Articles by J. B. Rhine on this website:
The Start of the Duke
The First Serious Criticism
(of the Duke Experiments)
ESP from the Viewpoint of
Some General Biological