New theories are rarely perfect as first presented and so need updating as new ideas emerge. The following list indicates where the older ones have been modified.
6 - Back to the Grid: Details of a grid-like structure were inferred which generated particles to make it act like a computer distributed throughout space. This idea has been refined by the mathematical approach given in new Ref.1. The reverse occurs. Primary particles now give rise to the grid structure instead. They need to occur in two varieties made from positive and negative kinetic energies so that they complement one another. When opposites collide a breeding process occurs, governed by the two conservation laws of energy and momentum. However, the same laws applied when many primaries converge from all directions favours mutual annihilation leading to the spontaneous formation of a filamentous structure. This generates the quantum waves using the vast power available everywhere due to breeding. The structure is shown to be more like the neural network of the brain, rather than like a computer. It possesses a self-organising capacity. It is shown to be capable of memory, has a learning capability and forms the primary consciousness which generates the universe of matter.
So space has a dynamic structure due to its virtual particles. But a sub-structure also seems to be needed in order that a mechanism can be provided to yield the required computing properties together with information storage over large volumes. The Grid, based on such a sub-structure, would need to store the sums of wave functions as numbers to define allowable paths and then continually urge particles toward the peak values for their control. Creating and manipulating numbers does of course require in itself a flow of energy, but since positive and negative kinds are able to mutually appear and disappear this presents no fundamental problem.
The structure required for the Grid might be envisaged as spider-web-like but extending in three dimensions. Any such ideas are of course purely speculative and so may not be correct or, more probably, they may be only partially correct. Even so a degree of speculation is justifiable since if one concept can be shown to yield a plausible mechanism, able to account for all observed phenomena, then the generic base is supportable. Ideas from other people may be triggered and are encouraged, so that comparisons can then be made with observation. Choices can only then be made by comparing the degree of success each hypothesis achieves in explaining all known observation.
Some people will be content with the idea that the Grid is at least an extension of God the Creator and did not need to arise. Instead the Creator has always existed without a beginning. To others this will not be acceptable. They will ask how God could have created Himself or will complain that a whole succession of creators would be needed going back in time ad infinitum, each creating the next.
Therefore speculation is required to show that an alternative explanation is possible, based on common sense. For example, it is not unthinkable that the structure could have crystallised spontaneously from pure "nothingness" as filaments or fibres with alternate strands made from equal and opposite forms of energy, so that conservation laws are not violated during creation. The mesh would have to be fine-grained even on an atomic scale. At the surfaces of both types of filament crude mediators might be catalysed to spread out until they collided with nearby filaments, so maintaining an equilibrium distance of separation. The junction points could form natural switches, since the crude mediators would be more concentrated at such places.
Now switches are the hearts of all computers. Each switch can be in one of two simple states, "on" or "off". Millions of them coordinating produce machine intelligence. It is not inconceivable that the random connections made over unlimited time could produce a working computer by chance. Then evolution could be driven by the competition from similar switch assemblies moving around the mesh by controlling switching but not actually moving any of the filaments.
One can imagine computers simultaneously growing from their nuclei of origin until they begin to touch in places. They then start trying to compete for each other's switches. One will start winning at some points whilst the other wins in others, so causing the frontier to wrinkle. The wrinkles grow into intertwined Pseudopodia like those of an amoeba magnified to giant scale. They writhe and twist around one another as each tries to gain advantage. Automatons in mindless conflict. Each unit starts to develop such conflicts at several places as more entities grow and encroach upon one another. Some will be more fitted for survival than others and so some will grow at the expense of others. The fittest survive and the conflict ensures that been colonised. The computation made would show up the undesirability of creating matter beyond a certain point. Hence, as the area of colonised space grew and generated the atoms of matter, a certain cut-off point would be programmed to be reached. There the further generation of permanent matter would be suppressed.
In this way a universe could arise having an exponential build-up phase corresponding with the "Big Bang", which most physicists think represents its most likely origin. Matter would exist at a massive density at the termination of this phase, but it would have been created together with high speeds of motion. A free expansion phase would then occur, reducing the density to that of a tenuous cloud of gas. All particles would be subject to the universal force of gravitation. This would have two effects. First there would be a general slowing down of all particles as they exploded away from the centre of creation. Second, an instability would arise running counter to the general expansion and tending to cause the gas to clump into clouds. Smaller-scale instabilities would arise in these clouds to ultimately result in condensations into stars and planets. These required the four forces of nature to be carefully planned with the constants of nature fine tuned to the most extraordinary degree. Only a deliberate creative act could account for the appearance of so many finely-tuned features.
All matter would be interconnected in a subtle way, being superimposed on an all-pervading intelligent Grid. This seems less implausible than the accidental evolution of the life we observe. The embryo Grid, which would first need to arise by accident, would be a life-form whose basis is infinitely less complex than biological forms, despite its unimaginable computing power. The idea is compatible with the strong anthropic principle, in that the universe would have been created so that biological life-forms could be designed.
It could be that the universe was so devised that life-forms could arise spontaneously. Then they would develop in the manner described by Charles Darwin. No further intervention by the creating-Grid would be involved. This would be a purely evolutionary method of designing life-forms. However, the existence of a Grid offers an alternative. This seems equally likely and so needs to be considered.
In this case life-forms would be deliberately designed by the enormous computing power of the Grid. Their evolution would then follow a pattern similar to that of our cars. Each species would be a redesign based upon predecessors which are obsolescent. This seems just as supportable by available data as Darwin's idea of chance mutation causing gradual change of one species giving rise to another. His theory is not excluded, however. It is possible that new organs, like eyes, could be initially designed by the Grid, then development left to Darwinian natural selection. There is no need to think in terms of these theories being mutually exclusive and therefore in competition. A mixture of both seems the best bet.
The Grid, self-reared in conflict situations, would naturally think in terms of conflict. It would design life-forms deliberately to be in competition one with another. Such competition would seem cruel and mindless to intelligent beings raised as extensions of the creator-Grid. From the viewpoint of the Creator this would not be an important consideration, since all experience would be beneficial. It could be that its own conflicts will resume when other far-off entities eventually re-appear, to start encroaching again on its territory. The conflict of simulated life-forms could provide preparation for improved defence strategy.
The savagery of animal preying on animal and of humans acting in the most cruel manner to both animals and other humans could have exceeded the expectations and wishes of the creator-Grid. The latter would not have infinite capacity, although it might seem so to our limited vision. So the Grid could make mistakes and, like us, would need to learn by experience. Evolution could therefore work in two directions, both mutually reinforcing one another. One is the form we have observed. This is the gradual improvement in the intelligence of life-forms and in recent centuries, the increasing humanity our species has developed. No longer do we glory in the suffering of tortured prisoners, for example. Instead we try to help the weak and needy. The other evolution could be feedback to the Grid itself. It also needs to evolve and it may be linked with our own development. Hence life-forms may be a necessary extension to the Grid. We may, after all, have some fundamental purpose.
Although the powers of the Creator would seem infinite to us, nothing can be really infinite, since infinity is an indeterminate number. Hence it cannot create everything at one go as an absolutely perfect system. There will be some unavoidable errors and defects. Hence considerable experimentation with research and development would be required. It would be advantageous to deliberately mix in some indeterminacy in such a way as to provide the created life-forms with a freedom to develop in ways which the Grid itself is unable to predict. This would make the whole creative idea more interesting and possibly throw up new and unexpected situations. God in fact deliberately playing dice with Himself, to paraphrase one of Einstein's famous comments.
Most of space is likely to be nothing more than an automaton, needing to be programmed, having no will or moral sense of its own. Here and there the more highly developed emotional centres having this capacity would be concentrated. It is possible that the brains of organic life-forms could have been created to enhance this power in ways which to us are not obvious. Humans could have been deliberately endowed with emotional needs and creative urges reflecting those of the Grid itself.
1 Conclusions to the Theory so far
With such a Grid mechanism behind and within all matter and space the mystifying phenomena uncovered by the quantum theory do not appear so strange and contradictory. The wave function provides a plan for the control of particles. It maps out all alternative paths. Then one of these is chosen at random, just like throwing a weighted dice. The particle travels the chosen path. Meanwhile the Grid is continually updating the wave-plan according to any changing geometry caused by the totality of moving and stationary particles. The wave function need no longer collapse to yield reality from alternative suspended states. Once a particle has taken one path, the redundant information carried could be deleted as a computer function. Alternatively the wave-plan can remain permanently, though unobserved by man. Only when particles travel is any physical effect observed.
The picture is not yet complete, however. We have still not yet reached the stage of being able to explain why atoms appear the way they do. The model does not yet relate Schrodinger's wave-model of the atom to the behaviour of electrons. If electrons have a permanent existence then they will orbit the nucleus like planets going round the Sun. The hydrogen atom having only one electron will then appear as a flat disc instead of a fuzzy ball. It is impossible for this orbit to fit in with a model having a probability distribution governed by wave interference patterns.
Much effort has been made to resolve the dilemma posed. The mathematical theory of chaos has been used with equations written in higher dimensions to find a way around the difficulty. Orbits with ',scars" in them have been generated. They jump around to some extent but even so the results do not fit Schrodinger's equation very well. As far as the new theory is concerned this approach is disallowed since higher dimensions are not admitted.
Another factor evidently needs to be operating. A search for this will be made in the next chapter so that the problem can be fully resolved.