IT MAY seem strange that the topic called "Survival Physics" is being introduced from an engineering background rather than from one of quantum physics. However, a large area of overlap exists between these two disciplines. Here the engineer can sometimes offer a new angle, not evident from the physicists approach, after sufficient knowledge of quantum mechanics has been acquired.
A major paradigm, accepted across all established scientific disciplines, states that mind and consciousness result from brain function alone. They are considered to be abstract constructs caused by interaction of the neurons that comprise the brain. This means that mind must vanish at the instant of brain death, a conclusion at variance with all religious belief and indeed contradicted by available evidence. This evidence has been building for over a century and is now so firm as to effectively constitute
convincing proof of survival.
A major intellectual conflict has therefore existed for many decades and a resolution is desperately required. Many scientists fear that a successful challenge to their paradigm would discredit the whole basis of science. Consequently scientists perceive any challenge as a threat needing to be discredited. In this article it is shown that physics and cosmology can actually be enhanced by a solution to some of their outstanding problems. The mathematically based theory involved, however, shows that a background mind needed to pre-exist the creation of matter. Indeed, the way this mind could have evolved and the mechanics of its construction appear, together with the way matter could have been formed by it as a deliberate creative act.
Consequently a resolution to the conflict is presented which in no way
threatens any scientific discipline. The theory was first published by the author(1&2) in the proceedings of two Russian scientific conferences of 1991 and 1993 and in the scientific journal "Frontier Perspectives"(3) in 1997. The hope is that, with the threat removed and a paradox-free theory provided, scientists will cease their efforts to discredit the available evidence of the survival of consciousness following bodily death. This summarises the compass of "Survival Physics".
Has Quantum Physics already proved Survival?
Quantum theory is the study of mechanics on small atomic scales where everyday commonsense logic seems totally inapplicable. One unresolved enigma is known as "wave-particle duality". Some kind of unknown wave system seems to control the places where minute objects are to be found at any instant. They behave as if they occupy a large number of places simultaneously in a ghost-like unresolved wave-state of limbo until the instant at which an observer looks at them. Then the waves collapse into the reality of particles. This is known as the "Copenhagen Interpretation of wave-particle duality".
Any object consists of countless billions of such particles. Consequently no object can be considered to truly exist until the instant it is perceived! The extraordinary situation is that, despite the clear acceptance of the role of consciousness in creating reality, all mainstream scientists still insist that consciousness is nothing more than brain
function and that brains are made out of matter. The obvious paradox, which never seems to be mentioned by theorists, is that matter could not, in consequence, really exist prior to any brain!
Has quantum theory, therefore, already demonstrated that some form of consciousness had to pre-exist the creation of matter? I will show that, in trying to answer this question; a new lead in the search for a theory of everything is made possible!
A HOLISTIC SOLUTION
My quest really began in 1984 when I became aware that something was badly wrong with the logic associated with the "big bang" theory. This indicated that a new approach was required. In this case the problem was that the initial explosive creation, postulated by cosmologists, could not be properly switched off. In consequence the theory actually predicted an expanding universe accelerating at a rate many billions of times greater than astronomical observations could possibly allow! It is known as the problem of the "cosmological constant" (Nothing to do with one Einstein proposed). Cosmologists still search in vain for a solution.
Another problem was that although Einstein's theory called "general relativity" provided a highly accurate mathematical description of the motions of planets and stars, its assumptions were simply incompatible with those of quantum theory. These two so-called "pillars of twentieth century achievement" simply did not
match (and still don't, of course). Therefore no fully satisfactory theory of mechanics for the cosmic scale existed; so a revised mechanics was also needed. My hope was to derive a quantum-compatible theory of gravity that would also eliminate the cosmological constant.
Questioning the Origin of matter results in a working Hypothesis
Quantum mechanics had also to be considered. It was clear that this level of reality appeared as if contrived by something. The quantum level therefore needed creation by a more basic level. This had to provide a source for the organised quantum waves on which quantum theory depended. Conversely it would be inappropriate to adopt wave mechanics at this basic level, now to be called the i-ther, otherwise it could not be a basic level. Furthermore,
this basic level needed the potential to evolve a background mind in order to satisfy the implications arising at the quantum level.
Was it reasonable to assume that a background mind would produce the "macroscopic" level, to which man relates, as a copy of its own mechanics? If it did would an intermediate quantum level be required, for a reason yet to emerge, which operated on a different basis in order to achieve this end?
Moreover, and most difficult of all, how could such a mind appear and create itself from a void of nothingness?
like a formidable string of questions and yet offered a reasonable working hypothesis. So the assumption was made that the mechanics derived for the macroscopic level would also apply at the sub-quantum level of i-ther, the ultimate and basic level where true reality was assumed to exist. Then the quantum level of reality would be the interface between the two and only here would the strange nature of quantum mechanics need to apply.
It is necessary to emphasise this principle of the approach since quantum physicists assume that quantum mechanics is the ultimate level. However, the counter argument is that something real must exist to produce its contrived nature and, if the new assumption leads to predictions supported by observation, then the approach could not be discounted as unreasonable. After all there is no way of proving that higher curved geometries really exist. These concepts, so popular with mathematicians and physicists, can only become accepted by the accuracy of the predictions arising.
The final solution will be summarised, from the published literature (Pearson 1,2,3). It transpired that the mechanics assumed to govern the i-ther was not critical. It could be based on the original Newtonian or a revision of that theory, but in addition to the inadmissibility of quantum mechanics, relativity theory was also inappropriate. The latter requires an observer to fix every "frame of reference". No observer could be considered to exist before an i-theric mind had evolved.
The derivation to be summarised here gives mostly the same end equations as general relativity and simultaneously eliminates the difficulty of the cosmological constant. A new interpretation for wave-particle duality emerges naturally from the mathematical logic and then shows how consciousness could exist prior to the creation of matter.
A Solution to the Gravity Problem
It seemed to me that the
problem with Einstein's theory was that the assumptions on which it was based made it incompatible with the existence of any background medium, such as the old aether, an invisible substance which for centuries had been considered to permeate the entire universe. The discord arises because Einstein chose the observer as the "frame of reference". This meant the observer is regarded as standing still. No two observers moving with respect to one another can both be standing still relative to the old "aether" or any other background medium. The aether was discredited
in about 1900 due to failure of experiments made to detect its presence, and
also because of its embarrassing conflict with relativity. Consequently the aether remains to this day as a discredited concept, yet something like it is needed if quantum theory is to make sense. Therefore the assumptions of relativity seemed to need modification. This is something theorists will not accept since this means the abandonment of relativity theory.
Newton's mechanics seemed the only alternative but is restricted to low speeds. Revision of this theory therefore seemed necessary to make it exact. Newton had assumed that any object is made from "mass": a quantity determined from the force exerted by the object when it is weighed. This mass he assumed to remain constant under all conditions. Using his laws of motion, however, the revision showed both matter and the motion of matter to be made from energy: "mass-energy". Energy had to be added to an object to speed it up and so it became more massive and heavier than when in a state of rest. A background medium, such as the aether, also had to exist and had to be more compressed the closer the approach to a massive object in order to satisfy a constraint of quantum theory: so the density of the aether had also to be variable. This variable density, coupled with the variable mass-energy, gave the same predictions as general relativity but offered the huge advantage of being fully quantum compatible.
Although mostly the same end equations appeared, they had a different meaning and interpretation. For example, as most people know, a clock situated at a low level in a gravitational field runs slow according to Einstein's concept of "gravitational time dilation": time itself is said to run slower at a lower level. For the revised Newtonian time runs at the same rate everywhere. However, Einstein's famous equation E = mc2 appears more directly from a revision of Newtonian mechanics than from relativity, but now c, the speed of light, reduces at lower levels instead of being the universal constant Einstein postulated. Any object, including a clock, when lowered say, on a cable, will have E, the energy from which it is made, remaining constant. Hence m, the mass of the clock, needs to increase to compensate for the reduction in c. This "gravitational mass increase" reduces the frequency of vibration of the clock mechanism. Exactly the same equation appears as given by general relativity but describes something totally different.
Unfortunately, as expounded by the physicist, Brian Martin(4), no articles are permitted publication in Western scientific journals, regardless of merit, unless the author writes from a prestigious address, such as a university, and has at least a PhD. in physics. All letters of rejection used political reasons; the most common simply stating that relativity was fully established so that alternatives were not required. Consequently this alternative to relativity had to be presented in Russia in 1991 where sound logic was found to outweigh the consideration of status. This mathematically based paper was selected to appear in their proceedings(1).
To follow the principle already described the same revised Newtonian could now be applied to study the background medium at the basic level of reality. Quantum mechanics would only apply at the interface between macroscopic and basic levels and so would be irrelevant. The hope was that the peculiarities at the quantum level would emerge as a natural consequence.
A Solution for the Cosmological Constant Appears
Problems associated with the big bang and the cosmological constant in particular then needed to be addressed. A basic law of physics is known as the "conservation of energy". This states, "Energy can be neither created nor destroyed". The big bang theory effectively violates this principle for the first split second and then assumes it applies thereafter. A considerable effort was made to publish a solution, between 1987 and 1999, in which no such violation occurred and in which the problem of the cosmological constant did not arise. Unfortunately no journal would accept the solution. For example,
Nature gave the reason that a theory in which the problem of the cosmologic constant did not exist could not be counted as a solution. The assessor, Dr. Lindley, kept insisting that it was necessary to accept the problem existed and then find a way to force it to zero.
The new solution, however, required a further revision of Newton's mechanics. A mirror mechanics had to be added having all masses and energy values considered negative. Then the background medium, the "i-ther", had to consist of a mixture of particles, some made of positive energy and with the remainder of a negative kind (nothing to do with electric charge which cannot exist at the level of i-ther). Then both kinds could be created in balance because each would gain energy of its own kind and these would cancel out. Similarly an energy balanced mutual annihilation was permitted. More detail is provided in the appendix for a better understanding of this statement.
The new feature, however, was that now both kinds of energy, considered complementary to one another like the Yin and Yang of Eastern philosophies, were considered to co-exist. They have to form a mixture of fast moving "primaries" in constant collision with one another like the molecules of a gas. Primaries, as will be shown later, turn out to be the only particles that really do exist and provide the ultimate elements from which everything else derives.
If the idea of negative energy seems unacceptable then reference can be made to the theory of radiation from black holes subsequently devised by the famous cosmologist, Professor Stephen Hawking. Crucial to his "Hawking radiation" is his assumption that space consists of a mixture of "virtual particles" half of positive and the remainder of negative energy. They appear from nothing in pairs and then come together again where he assumes they will mutually annihilate to leave nothing.
It is true that mutual creation and annihilation can occur without violation of energy conservation when both kinds of energy co-exist. Hawking has, however, clearly not appreciated the role played by another basic law of physics called the "conservation of momentum". It is necessary to apply this law simultaneously and then, as is shown in the appendix, Hawking's assumption of annihilation is invalidated. Instead, when particles of apposite energy collide, the astonishing mathematical discovery emerged that energy gains appear!
I call this analysis, "Opposed Energy Dynamics" but it is applicable only at the sub-quantum level of reality, the level of i-ther, since at other levels only a net positive energy is apparent. Each primary of the i-ther gains energy of its own kind: in pair collision, the positive primaries gain positive energy and the negative primaries gain a balanced amount of negative energy. In fact the study showed primaries to be breeding like opposite sexes!
This extension to mechanics was first presented in Russia in 1993 and appeared in the proceedings(2). A further publication
(Pearson(3)) in a 1997 edition of Frontier Perspectives received high commendation from Temple University, Philadelphia USA.
The breeding effect meant that pure creation could spontaneously arise from a void of nothingness! The i-ther could have spontaneously appeared from nothing to grow at an ever accelerating and extremely rapid rate, both in volume and density. Fortunately, at a critical density, instability would arise allowing flow patterns on a minute scale to appear. Primaries would be pushed by the pure creation going on behind them so that they flowed in large numbers to common centres from all directions. The net momentum obtained by adding up that of each primary now totalled to zero, so producing the conditions favouring mutual annihilation. So centres of energy destruction formed spontaneously as solid lumps of primaries of both kinds in the act of mutual annihilation. These cancelled nearly all the creation going on. Then only a minute net creation could remain.
A solution to the cosmological constant had appeared as a natural consequence of the initial assumptions! The i-ther would be committed to a modest ever-accelerating growth everywhere owing to the minute net creation remaining and, after matter had appeared, the universe would be carried along so that it too would expand in a similar way. I announced this prediction at the Mensa conference at Malvern in 1997. Then in 1998 astronomical observations of very distant supernovae, published by Schwartzchild(5), confirmed that indeed the universe was expanding at an accelerating rate: so lending fortuitous support to the theory. A detailed study showed that the rate of expansion could not be greater than a fifth of that observed. Observation is based on the so-called "red-shift" of light from distant galaxies. However, according to Anastasovski(6) most of the red shift is due to energy lost by light during its travel over huge distances. Aspden(7) has published a similar solution based on the energy absorption of light by free electrons in space.
Cosmologists on the other hand were taken by surprise since they had assumed the expansion to be always slowing. To explain the new effect they have invented the idea of dark energy with strange repulsive powers. However, the problem of the cosmological constant is left unresolved, being treated as a separate issue.
It is important to note here that the application of quantum mechanics at the level of i-ther would not yield this result. However, since the cosmological constant has been eliminated and replaced by a verified prediction and since no other such success has yet been reported; the assumption that the revised Newtonian is applicable at the basic level of reality has now considerable support.
Consciousness emerges prior to the existence of matter
At the level of i-ther filaments appear composed of primaries in the act of mutual annihilation. They arise at the centres of a honeycomb-like array of breeding cells. An alternative geometry would consist of spherical cells but these have been shown less stable so that almost cylindrical shapes ultimately form. Such cells, with central filaments, tend to exist in bundles but on larger scales these bundles have random orientation. Switch-like Tee-junctions appear as filaments try to cross each other. Also the breeding within cells form the perfect analogue of a heat source with each central filament forming the perfect analogue of a heat sink. Now any heat engine, such as a steam plant, requires a heat source and a heat sink so that mechanical power can be produced. Hence the cells act like tiny engines producing mechanical power. This power can only be expressed in the form of waves of switching action as one switch, in changing state, triggers the next. A fluid component of breeding primaries bathes the filaments and so forms an additional medium for wave propagation. A source for quantum waves seems to have appeared!
In addition the filaments seem to have the potential for evolving a brain-like structure. This appears as a background neural net of minute grain size, even as compared to atoms, yet filling the entirety of space. Hence it was speculated that consciousness could have evolved at the level of i-ther (intelligent ether) long before matter appeared.
Survival appears as a vital aspect of Physics!
At some point this consciousness developed a creative urge and built an interpenetrating system of universes of matter. These were required for providing a set of meaningful habitats for minds. A near infinite number of parallel universes could not exist, but a small number could be permitted by the available space. Each mind would be a fragment of the i-theric consciousness, separated from the rest by information filter-barriers, programmed into the i-ther, so that each could only obtain information via sense organs built of matter. By such means each mind would be able to compete and cooperate with other minds in meaningful ways as if they were totally separate entities. Then, as a further consequence, matter would appear to be the totality of existence. Each mind would be housed in a body built of matter but deliberately arranged to be non-permanent. This would force each mind to transfer, at intervals, to the next parallel universe so that a new set of experiences could be gained.
Resolving the enigma of Wave-Particle Duality
The only tools available for building such matter-systems were the quantum waves. Hence a perfect reason for the strange wave-particle nature of matter seemed to have appeared. To
create what we infer to be a sub-atomic particle, waves had to be focused: to implode at a selected point. Imagine a pebble dropped into a pond. It first digs a pit in the water and this is then filled by an imploding wave coming in from all round its edge. A sharp spike of water appears as the wave meets itself at the central focal point. Focused quantum waves will similarly produce transient spikes, this time of i-theric density. So at any focal point a transient spike of density in the i-ther would be generated to represent a sub-atomic particle and it would behave as a particle in collision with others built the same way. Then to make say, an electron, such focusing would need to be repeated very rapidly with places chosen by the i-ther using its own kind of computational mathematics: using quantum waves as numbers. Any "particle", at the quantum level of reality, would really be a train of repeated creations joined end to end in time but not in position, the trajectory looking like a dotted line.
An electron has a negative electric charge and is attracted to the positive charge located in the nucleus of an atom. This confines the electron to an "orbital" centred on the nucleus. In established thinking the electron is being controlled by a real electromagnetic force. What appears now is that the train of positions would be so chosen as to make it only appear as if controlled by an electromagnetic force. Charge is most likely to be merely a number allocated to switch on a sub-routine programmed into the i-ther to perturb the focusing sequence from a straight line to a curve. The electron has another property called "spin". Again no real spin is required: it can also be represented just by a number to help the computation. The filamentous net provides an almost unlimited memory store as well as providing computational power and so can store such numbers to allocate spin and charge.
Similar reasoning would make the nuclei of atoms seem controlled by a strong nuclear force. A so-called "weak" nuclear force is also evident and this controls nuclear fission. Unstable nuclei split after being hit by heavy particles of short life appearing from nothing. Again these projectiles are readily explained as wave induced density spikes.
Hence the forces of nature, seeming so real to us, now appear as abstract mathematical constructs. Matter cannot be as real as it appears: true reality lies in the invisible, in the real energies at the level of i-ther.
With this perception a new interpretation can be made for some puzzling observations. Experiments have shown that such "particles" are not true particles at all. Some people call them "wavicles" to denote their wave nature. Interference patterns control the places where they are most likely to be found at any instant. These patterns are similar to those formed in the cross over region of ripples arising from two pebbles thrown into a pond together. Sometimes similar patterns, produced by quantum waves, specify multiple alternative paths for such wavicles to follow. Then they behave as if they follow all permitted paths simultaneously. Indeed it has been shown that a wavicle can be located in two places at once.
A plausible explanation can now be offered. The place to focus the next set of waves, to produce a density spike, is randomly selected from all permitted locations. So when multiple paths are permitted the focal point jumps about from one permitted path to another. At any instant the spike/wavicle only appears in one place but jumps about so rapidly as to give the impression of following all paths simultaneously.
There is no need for an observer to "collapse the wave function" as demanded by the Copenhagen interpretation. As soon as a wavicle hits another the wave functions of both are cancelled by the i-theric computation and new ones substituted.
Non-locality can also be provided with an
explanation. This involves so-called "entanglement". A pair of identical wavicles can be created together and allowed to move apart, even to great distance. If striking something perturbs one wavicle, then the other is instantly affected.
If only a minute time delay is permitted then the theory can provide an explanation depending on the hyper-fast propagation of information along the filaments. It has to be admitted that a difficulty will arise if action at a distance is ever proved to occur absolutely instantaneously.
The "Quantum Wave theory of Gravity"
Gravity also needs an explanation. As each quantum wave passes the focal point, to make a wavicle, it then starts to spread out again travelling ultimately to infinite distance. As it goes it causes increase in the collision of primaries and so stimulates excess creation. Any massive object like the Earth or Sun consists of huge numbers of sub-atomic particles (wavicles) and each contributes a set of spherically expanding waves. These all add their contribution so that energy density gradients of the i-ther are produced obeying an inverse square law about any mass that appears to be their cause.
This mechanism was studied in detail and found to provide the explanation needed for the variable density predicted from the revised Newtonian theory of gravity. The "quantum-wave theory of gravity" had appeared and seems every bit as good in predictive power as general relativity. For example, starlight passing close to the Sun is deflected in this theory, half by the i-theic density gradient and half by the force of gravity. So an explanation has appeared showing why measurements, during solar eclipses, give double the light deflection predicted by the original Newtonian.
The source of the gravitational force itself may have already been identified by Aspden(8) as a residual of the force of electromagnetism, because on this basis he derives an accurate value for the gravitational constant. Since the electromagnetic force now appears abstract, from the present derivation, it follows that the force of gravity must also be abstract.
Observation has already supported this extended theory of everything
The picture that has emerged shows not only that the universe is most likely to be a deliberate creation of the mind. It also gives some detail of the way that creation is likely to have been achieved. It also follows that the mind, or consciousness, is likely to be part of the structure of the i-ther, having the potential to be
immortal; not mere mortal brain function. In this way the new theory supports the main tenets of all religious faiths: that the universe was a deliberate creation and that an immortal soul could exist. There is no threat to physics. Indeed it now seems likely that its problems can only be resolved when these tenets are incorporated.
Experimental evidence for the survival of consciousness following bodily death has been accumulating for over a century, starting with the careful observations of Sir William Crookes FRS(9) reported in 1871.
Other experiments involving physical mediumship were repeated and supported by
more scientists of that era, including Prof. Charles Richet (France), Dr. Gustave Geley, Prof. Baron Von Schrenck-Notzing, Dr.
W. J. Crawford and Dr. T. Glen Hamilton. Further support together with a preliminary etheric theory to explain it all came later from Sir Oliver Lodge FRS(10).
Recently the Society for Psychical
Research has published confirmatory evidence. The Scole Report, written by Keen et al(11) in 1999, gives details of phenomena proving the survival of consciousness.
Furthermore the new approach presents no threat to biology or to Darwin's theory of evolution. It is likely that the first cells and their DNA were deliberately designed and created so that from then on natural selection could be relied upon to produce the diversity of biological life we see today. Indeed, some difficulties, such as missing links between species, can be provided with a plausible explanation. Each could have been a new design based upon older experience: just as our cars evolved from horseless carriages.
The elements of a comprehensive theory of everything are provided which opens an escape route for theologians wanting to find a way of jettisoning parts of ancient texts. I refer to those that encourage the murder and enslavement of non-believers. It is known that James
I was responsible for inserting, "Never suffer a witch to live". This allowed the mass burning of thousands of innocent people. Clearly other offending texts could also have been inserted for evil political reasons. These can now be discarded without undermining the desirable features of faith. It is these harmful texts on which fundamentalists rely to justify their violence against infidels. A major excuse for terrorism could be eliminated.
From a start made to solve a difficulty in the big bang theory, consciousness has been shown to have the potential of being immortal. If the brain is conscious as well, it cannot be the primary consciousness. The latter must still remain after the brain has died.
Since survival can be shown an essential and integral part of physics, the hope must be that the efforts still being made to discredit all evidence of survival will soon come to an end. This theory has achieved publication in Russian conference proceedings(1&2) of 1991 and 1993 respectively, and in the peer-reviewed scientific journal "Frontier Perspectives"(3) in 1997. Furthermore
Prof. Peter Wadhams, Professor of Ocean Physics at Cambridge University, supported the theory during a joint broadcast on the Jeff Rense Radio Show in 2001. Pearson's first book(12) on the subject contains certain features that were later superseded. The supplement(13) therefore also needs to be consulted. These are available from the website of M. Roll(14) and Ref.3 can be seen on
the International Survivalist Society Jones website(15).
Negative energy and negative mass
To understand what negative mass and energy entails it is easiest to think of the energy form known as mechanical work. An object is pushed a given distance and the work done is obtained by multiplying the pushing force by the distance it moves. If the object is totally free to move it will accelerate, so absorbing the work done and turning it all into energy of motion: kinetic energy. (This also adds a "kinetic mass" causing a mass increase according to the revised
If now the energy from which the object is made is considered negative then a backward facing force will cause it to accelerate. So negative mechanical work is converted to negative kinetic energy and there will be an associated increase of negative mass. There is nothing peculiar about such negative mass and energy. We could do all our mechanics on these assumptions and get all the same responses because the negative effects always come in pairs and cancel out. For example, one object pushes with a "force of action" against another. The latter pushes back with a "force of reaction". If the directions of all these forces are reversed for both objects then they will be predicted to bounce away from each other just as they did with the forces acting in the directions normally assumed. The energy forms are mirror images of one another.
The collision breeding of primaries by "Opposed Energy Dynamics"
The breeding effect depends on the law of conservation of momentum: something that controls the dynamics of energy. The momentum of a moving object is defined as its mass multiplied by its velocity. It is important to note that the velocity of an object is its speed with direction also specified. Direction is of critical importance. It is convenient to represent momentum, denoted by the symbol p, by an arrow of a length proportional to its mass
x speed and with the arrowhead pointing in the direction of motion. Anything requiring direction to be specified is known as a "vector". So momentum is a vector: unlike energy that, being the substance of the universe, is not affected by direction and is therefore classified as a "scalar" quantity.
For a primary of negative mass and energy the momentum arrow points opposite the direction of motion. A pair of primaries can be imagined approaching one another from opposite directions to meet in head on collision. It follows that, since the directions of motion are opposed, both momentum arrows point in the direction of motion of the positive primary. They add up. It follows that in order for this sum to remain the same after collision, as required for momentum conservation, then neither primary can lose or gain any energy. They must pass through one another without change of velocity or energy. Mutual annihilation is impossible.
Now consider the two approaching from opposite directions but not making a head on collision so that they scatter sideways. No momentum in the original direction of motion can be lost for the reason just given but now transverse momentum components are added to produce the scatter motion. These transverse components have to sum to zero and it follows that these added components have to be equal but must point in opposite directions. They also have to be exactly transverse to the initial lines of motion since otherwise associated energy changes would not balance.
More importantly the added momentum vectors demand an associated energy gain of the same kind as that of which the primary is composed. Hence for all scattering collisions energy gains must arise.
In the general case collisions occur from all possible angles but these can readily be evaluated by extension of the approach. Then a statistical analysis can be applied to determine average energy gains.
Wave-Particle Duality in more detail
Quantum theory is the study of mechanics on small atomic scales where particles also act like waves. For example, electrons are sub-atomic particles that seem to orbit nuclei to form the atoms of matter. Experiments have been made using electrons stripped from their parent atoms. These electrons have then been projected, one at a time, towards two very small closely spaced holes in a screen. Those which pass through the holes have then been collected, over a long period, to produce a pattern on a screen placed some distance behind the two holes. The pattern produced is always found to be identical with that obtained from interfering waves. Dropping two pebbles into a pond together can for example, easily produce such a pattern. The ripples spread out in rings from each point of impact and eventually crossover one another. This crossover region is an interference pattern.
The puzzle was that each electron, going one at a time, could only pass through one hole leaving the other empty. Yet the pattern required at least the governing waves to pass through both simultaneously. Early on de Broglie suggested that some kind of pilot wave must be organising the motion but this idea did not fit all the data and was abandoned. This idea was superseded by the "Copenhagen interpretation" due mostly to Bohr. This said that no particles really existed until the instant they were observed. Until then they were represented by complex "wave functions" encoding all possible positions. This interpretation meant that the consciousness of the individual formed a critical part of what we experience as reality.
Others followed an idea proposed by Everett in 1957. He suggested that electrons carried their wave functions along with them so that, to explain the two-hole experiment, a ghost electron needed to pass simultaneously through the unused hole. It meant a new universe had to be created every time an electron had a choice of two paths. This idea is incompatible with Survival Physics.
One explanation that seems more logical than all these was introduced in 1980 by Bohm(16) based on the idea of a background existing he called, "Implicate Order" but gives no details of its structure. Survival Physics comes closer to this than all the other interpretations. The reader can judge how close this comes to providing details of the structure of
Bohm's concept requires.
(Note: some refs. Refer to others in this list)
1. Pearson, Ronald D.: Alternative to Relativity including Quantum Gravitation: Second International Conference on Problems in Space and Time: St. Petersburg, Petrovskaja Academy of Sciences & Arts
[Sept. 1991]: pp 278-292
Chairman Local Organising Committee: Dr. Michael Varin: Pulkovskoye Road 65-9-1
St. Petersburg 196140, Russia. FAX: (7) (812) 291-81-35
Phone:Alexandre Alekseev: office:(7) (812) 291-36-73, Home:(7) (812) 173-55-69 E-Mail:
2. Pearson, Ronald D.:
Quantum Gravitation and the Structured Ether
Sir Isaac Newton Conference. St. Petersburg [March 1993] pp 39-55 (Address as
3. Pearson, R. D.:
Consciousness as a Sun-Quantum Phenomenon
Frontier Perspectives, Spring/Summer 1997, Vol.6, No.2 pp70-78 (also see ref. 15)
4. Martin, Brian: Suppression Stories: (1997) Fund for Intellectual Dissent, Box U129 Wollongong University, Wollongong NSW 2500, Australia. See also:
5. Schwarzchild, B.: Very distant Supernova Suggest that the Cosmic Expansion is
Speeding Up: Physics Today, Vol.51(6) pp.17-19
6. Anastasovski, Peter et al: A new approach to the cosmic red-shift and to the
cosmic Microwave sources: Journal of New energy, Vol.1 No.2 Summer 1996 pp.79-87
7. Aspden, Harold: The Steady-State Free-Electron Population of free Space
Letters Al Nuovo Cimento. Vol.41, N.7 (1984)
8. Aspden,H: Tutorial Notes 1997:
9. Crookes, Sir William FRS:
Experimental Investigation of a New Force
Quarterly Journal of Science, July 1 1871
10. Lodge, Sir Oliver FRS: Ether and Reality: Hodder & Stroughton (1925)
11. Keen, Montague: Ellison, Arthur: Fontana, David (of the Society for Psychical
Research UK): The Scole Report: (gives recent valuable evidence)
Proc. Soc. of Psychical Research Vol.58, Part 220 (1999)
12. Pearson, Ronald D,:
Intelligence Behind the
370 pages (520 grams) A popularisation plus Technical Appendix Available from:
Michael Roll: 28 Westerleigh Rd., Downend, Bristol. BS16 6AH:
Tel:0177 9561960 (or see ref.14 website)
13. Pearson, Ronald D.:
Origin of Mind [Dec.1992]:
A popularisation plus
Technical Appendix (Maths of Opposed Energy Dynamics)
72 pages: (110 grams) direct from Michael Roll (see ref.10 or 12).
14. Roll, Michael: The Scientific Proof of Survival After Death. See
www.cfpf.org.uk E-mail: email@example.com (To order refs 12 & 13)
Thomas. M.: www.SurvivalAfterDeath.info (gives ref. 3 in full)
16. Bohm, David: Wholeness and the Implicate Order:
Routledge & Kegan Paul 1980.